Home>Awards  >   Shortlisted Cities

Sydney
Australia

2018-09-17

I. Green Square: From A Rich Industrial Past To A Vibrant, Sustainable And Connected Community


BASIC CITY DATA

  • Population size: 233,217

  • Population growth rate (%): 4.00

  • Surface area (sq.km): 26.72

  • Population density (people/sq.km): 8727.00

  • GDP per capita (USD): 139,488.00

  • Main source of prosperity: Finance, tourism, information/media/tech, digital economy, and creative and performing arts


ABSTRACT

The 278 hectare Green Square redevelopment is Australia’s largest urban renewal project, with a population to peak at 61,000 residents and 21,000 workers by 2030. It is strategically located within one of the most important economic corridors in Australia, 3.5km south of Sydney's CBD and 4km from Sydney Airport and Port Botany. The City of Sydney (the City) wants the growth of Green Square to be supported by everything needed to make large cities livable: a thriving town centre and main street, a sense of community sustained with markets, festivals and an active street life; sustainable transport options allowing people to easily walk or cycle; and underpinned by environmental sustainability. 

The City has committed AU$800 million to Green Square, including $540 million towards world-class facilities and infrastructure. 

The City has implemented a package of innovative funding mechanisms to create partnerships with private developers to deliver infrastructure.  

The initiative demonstrates urban renewal best practice and shows how Sydney’s oldest industrial area, with its rich and unique history, is being transformed into an inner-city hub for people to live, work and play.


BACKGROUND INFORMATION 

The Green Square renewal framework is set within New South Wales (NSW)’s state government planning legislation and comprises statutory controls, policies and guidelines. It includes: a legal instrument; a development plan; infrastructure and developer contributions plans; public domain plans; and technical codes. The City’s delivery of physical and social infrastructure is set within local government legislation that requires annual reporting of councils’ corporate plans – particularly relevant are a Community Strategic Plan and Resourcing Strategy, which includes a Long Term Financial Plan.


ORIGINS

Green Square has been the focus of regional and local planning the mid-1990s, following the announcement of a direct rail line connecting Sydney’s international airport to the CBD for the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games with a station at Green Square. The announcement was the catalyst for the first large scale ‘brownfield’ renewal in Australia, so as to capitalise on Green Square’s strategic location between the Sydney CBD, Sydney Airport and Port Botany. 

Until then most new large scale development in Sydney occurred in ‘greenfield’ areas at the fringes of urban areas. The lands in Green Square were part of Sydney’s, and Australia’s,manufacturing powerhouse. Major structural economic changes in the 1970’s saw industries becoming obsolete or relocating to larger and cheaper sites at Sydney’s fringes or overseas. Green Square was seen as an opportunity to use existing underutilised infrastructure and deliver housing more economically.

Green Square is situated within Sydney’s ‘Global Economic Corridor’, Australia’s dominant area of economic activity and job growth. Green Square is strategically placed to provide housing next to jobs, major health facilities and transport corridors.

Under the NSW government’s metropolitan strategies, Green Square is identified as a planned major centre delivering jobs, homes and a wide range of services and facilities. It is planned to deliver homes for 61,000 people and 21,000 new jobs by 2030. 

The City’s Sustainable Sydney 2030, its long term strategic vision and direction, sees Green Square as a major opportunity for growth, infrastructure improvements and renewal to contribute significantly to Sydney’s sustainability. The goal is to establish a transit oriented sustainable and harmonious community, based on high density living. At the core is the realisation of the new town centre as the commercial, retail, entertainment and cultural hub. 

The aim is to create a place with a minimal environmental footprint and a vibrant and well-connected community where it is easy to:

  • walk and cycle

  • use and enjoy well-connected streets, public spaces, cultural and recreational facilities

  • use convenient and integrated public transport connections and services

  • celebrate high quality public spaces as the focus of activity

  • have access to high quality housing, including affordable housing, shopping, commerce, services and jobs.

  • The City provides strategic leadership, at the nexus of the complex partnerships and agreements with many government agencies, private developers and other stakeholders, which are required for the successful renewal. These partnerships include:

  • multiple planning agreements that include contracts for civil works delivered by private developers

  • high level consultative and advisory committees and networks including state government and technical experts to oversee the   macro elements of the renewal area and in some cases jointly deliver infrastructure

  • informal partnerships with stakeholders, business and the community to consult and liaise on implementation and community building issues, and develop community relations programs.

Total estimated public infrastructure cost in Green Square (2015 prices) is AU$1.3 billion for land, roads and utilities, trunk drainage, parks and community facilities, excluding state provided infrastructure such as public transport and schools. 

Through value capture schemes and levies the private sector contributes 79% of total infrastructure costs.

Of the remaining 21% the City contributes 2/3 and 1/3 is funded by federal and state governments. 

Approximately AU$13 billion in construction will have been spent over the next 10 years to regenerate Green Square, with the City forward funding AU$540 million to build world-class community facilities and infrastructure: a library and public plaza, community and creative centre and halls, aquatic centre and sporting field, land acquisitions and essential civil and public domain infrastructure.

In addition to funding, the City contributes skills and human resources to develop strategic policy, engage with developers and the community, project manage civil projects, achieve design excellence through design competitions, deliver community services and maintain assets at a high standard.


INNOVATIVE ASPECTS

The Green Square project when conceived was revolutionary in that it was the first large scale brownfield redevelopment to be undertaken in Sydney. Masterplanning and coordinating development and delivery of public domain and civil infrastructure across multiple different landownerships had not been done before. The value capture approach to deliver social and civil infrastructure was also revolutionary at such large scale, in particular the zoning model developed to fund essential infrastructure for the new town centre. Other revolutionary approaches at this scale and density include sustainability initiatives such as a water reuse scheme, streets designed with central swales to capture and cleanse stormwater, and significant expansion of tree canopy cover. 

As the project progressed, the approach to renewal has been evolutionary in that the City refined its planning and infrastructure delivery framework to respond to new state government directions, accelerate infrastructure delivery and respond to community and market expectations. The City resolved to forward fund infrastructure projects and pursue partnerships with state agencies to bridge funding gaps - co-funding a major trunk drain, transport corridor and primary school – all the state government’s responsibility.

The City established strategic plans, planning controls, policies, design excellence processes, design codes and technical specifications. This work serves to analyse, define and choreograph public spaces, public transport initiatives and built forms consistent with our objectives for a green, global and connected city. 

This approach derives from an iterative process of continued review, refinement and monitoring. It is informed by local and international best practice, research and engagement with practitioners, advisory bodies and community engagement. Some of the world’s best practitioners have provided strategic direction – Jan Gehl (Denmark) on activation of public places and Allan Jones (UK) on precinct scale trigeneration, for example.

Innovation in delivering Green Square comprises the development and implementation of a holistic urban renewal package including: 

  • a strategy implemented through detailed statutory planning controls and development plan, informed by local and state policies

  • concept and detail designs for civil infrastructure and public domain

  • guidelines and codes on specific issues, for example on value capture calculations and green roofs

  • funding arrangements through floor space incentives

  • integrated project management across the City’s and private sector developments

  • governance arrangements through agreements

Green Square was earmarked for renewal in the mid-1990s. Despite the airport rail line opening in 2000 and some large sites being redeveloped, some of the essential infrastructure, in particular in the town centre had not been delivered by 2004. 

The obstacles to development were fundamental. Land was in multiple ownerships, including land required for essential infrastructure. The costs to deal with transport, flooding and contamination were high, with no commitment or engagement from state agencies. The original state government commitment to the project had not addressed infrastructure funding. 

The City began a comprehensive review of the financing, land use, urban design, transport and social and physical infrastructure and developed a fully costed, infrastructure plan and is investing AU$540 million over the next ten years. 

Despite numerous meetings with state Ministers and establishment of a coordination committee, agreement and funding for major trunk drainage was not reached until 2014. The City resolved to fund more than half of the trunk drainage, and development is now well underway. 

Similarly, there is still no clear state public transport strategy to meet the needs of the rapidly increasing population. Although the City is not responsible for public transport, it has purchased key sites to protect the transport corridor.


DESIRED CHANGE OR OUTCOME 

Green Square is one of the fastest growing areas in Australia and is delivering on state  government housing targets, with 11,000 new dwellings built and a resident population increase of 10% per year in the last year (currently 26,000 residents). 

In 2018 the City has completed the key components of the new civic hub at the heart of the town centre – a major community and cultural precinct and a new library and civic plaza which have set new benchmarks in adaptive reuse of heritage buildings, facilities integration, sustainability and design innovation. They provide the spaces for community activities and programs run by the City and various organisations. 

Many new streets, walkways and bike paths have been delivered, fourteen out of the 35 new parks planned have also been built. This public domain network has made the area much more legible, accessible and connected and has added to the setting for a healthy and active community with opportunities to socialise and recreate at their doorstep. 

Active transport has significantly increased - patronage at Green Square train station increased by more than 30% each year between 2014 and 2016 and at 14%, the area has the highest rate of commuter trips to the CBD by bicycle in Sydney.

There are many measures the City has developed to assess and document change:

Regular financial reporting tracks expenditure and performance on the City’s capital works projects delivering infrastructure and of developer contributions

Development approvals and construction data measures growth rates and population projections

Environmental sustainability progress reports are produced bi-annually for the City

Some research and review initiatives include:- internationally renowned urban designers Gehl Architects conduct benchmark studies that map, assess and guide the usability and quality of the City’s public spaces and architecture- a research partnership with NSW University monitors and measures through community surveys social cohesion- partnerships with health and transport government agencies assess evolving conditions (such as public transport use, walking and cycling numbers) to assess and mitigate impacts- a 5-yearly floor space and employment survey measures changes in job numbers and types of employment- capacity studies measure floorspace take-up permitted under the planning framework and available floorspace.

The main aspects of the ‘tool kit’ devised to ensure success of the initiative includes:

  • a comprehensive package of detailed planning controls inextricably linked to infrastructure strategies and plans

  • legally binding deeds and planning agreements to seal developer and government commitments to contribute to infrastructure delivery

  • public domain plans and concept designs that map all infrastructure layers

  • transparent, open and consistent communication and engagement with all stakeholders to build trust and confidence in the realisation of the vision.

  • The initiative has set new benchmarks in renewal at a large scale. It contributes to the City’s reputation as a bold and visionary leader, who can demonstrate by doing how denser cities can be the healthiest, greenest, most stimulating places for people – with the least environmental footprint. Ultimately the initiative demonstrates how the City contributes to Sydney as a great place to live, visit and do business in.


LEARNING ASPECTS 

The learnings from the City’s experience in urban renewal would offer other cities insights on an approach that can be applied to regeneration of large scale and high density areas. It would include:

  • defining the vision for the place within the local, regional and metropolitan context

  • undertaking detailed master planning and economic testing

  • a strategy and plan to deliver hard and soft infrastructure integration

  • concept design plans for civil infrastructure and public domain

  • establishing source of funding for public infrastructure early, including forward funding needs

  • setting a value capture scheme(s) before uplift is granted by planning controls

  • early development of a staging plan with flexibility to change over time

  • buy-in and resources from all key stakeholders – in particular government and private sector

  • community consultation and engagement plan with clear lines of communication and feedback

  • set out process for regular review, monitoring, feedback and refinements.

The City conducts many tours, receives delegations and makes presentations at many forums. In addition, the City would be happy to share information on various aspects of the renewal project.


RELEVANCE TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS 

  • Goal 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all agesGoal 4: Ensure inclusive and equitable education and promote life-long learning opportunities for allGoal 6: Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for allGoal 9: Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation

  • Goal 11: Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable

  • Target 1: Access for all to adequate, safe and affordable housing and basic services and upgrade slums

  • Target 2: Access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all

  • Target 3: Participatory, integrated and sustainable human settlement planning and management

  • Target 4: Safeguard cultural and natural heritage

  • Target 6: Improve air quality and manage municipal and other wastes

  • Target 7: Universal access to safe, inclusive and accessible green and public spaces, in particular of women, children older persons and persons with disabilities

  • Target 9: Improving resource efficiency, mitigation and adaptation to climate change, resilience to disasters and implement holistic disaster risk management

  • Goal 13: Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impactsGoal 16: Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions for all


_ueditor_page_break_tag_

II. Green Square Town Centre: A Unique, Resilient and Welcoming Centre for the Green Square Community


BASIC CITY DATA

  • Population size: 233,217

  • Population growth rate (%): 4.00

  • Surface area (sq.km): 26.72

  • Population density (people/sq.km): 8727.00

  • GDP per capita (USD): 139,488.00

  • Main source of prosperity: Finance, tourism, information/media/tech, digital economy, and creative and performing arts

 

ABSTRACT

Central to the 278 hectare Green Square urban renewal area there will be a new, resilient, lively and unique centre – the residential, commercial and cultural heart of the Green Square community. Green Square is Australia’s largest urban renewal project, with a population to peak at 61,000 residents and 21,000 workers by 2030. The town centre will accommodate 6,800residents and 8,600 workers. The town centre will showcase world class urban design with sustainable infrastructure and community facilities including, a library, aquatic centre, parks, childcare centre and creative hub. Infrastructure is funded by a value capture scheme and capital allocations. The town centre is a City initiative in collaboration with private developers and state government. It is an ongoing activity showcasing innovation, sustainability and excellence in design and leadership.

 

BACKGROUND INFORMATION

Delivery of the town centre occurs within the New South Wales (NSW) state government planning, infrastructure and building legislation and regulations, which establish the controls, codes, standards, procedures and processes under which projects are conceived, approved and delivered. In addition, the City’s delivery of its own projects occurs within local government legislation that requires annual reporting of councils’ corporate plans – particularly relevant are a Community Strategic Plan and Resourcing Strategy, which includes a Long Term Financial Plan.

 

ORIGINS

Given the availability of underutilised industrial land, transport infrastructure and synergies with adjoining areas, Green Square has been highlighted since the late 1990s in the City’s and the NSW state government’s strategies as an opportunity for considerable growth, infrastructure improvements and best-practice sustainable development. Central to Green Square is the 13.7 hectare site centred on the Green Square train station, which was earmarked for development of a new town centre during the process of defining the area. The site was mostly owned by state and local government entities and it was seen at the time that this would make redevelopment easier to coordinate and deliver the major infrastructure essential to support the higher order mixed land uses proposed.Green Square, once the industrial heart of Sydney's south, is transforming into a culturally vibrant, innovatively designed and connected place to live, work, socialise and shop. Its population is set to peak at 61,000 residents and 21,000 workers at 2030.The town centre will be the transport, retail and civic heart. Once fully developed by 2030, itis expected to accommodate 3,950 homes and 7,500 jobs. It is well located to existing infrastructure, on a major train line and at the confluence of three arterial roads. The development density and proposed land uses take advantage of the centre’s proximity to4Sydney CBD, Sydney Airport and Port Botany, the public realm, founded on progressive environmental principles will actively nurture a diverse, creative working community that will in turn make a crucial contribution to the economic competitiveness of Metropolitan Sydney. Significant contributions are also expected in renewable energy, water and reduction of greenhouse emissions, including developing programs and sites to generate local electricity and secure water supplies. Other key drivers are to create:

  • high quality streets and unique public spaces 

  • fine grain architecture and a bricolage of commercial, retail and community uses, enabling human-scaled, active frontages, high permeability, and varied day and nighttime activities, reinforcing and enhancing the public domain

  • strategically located tall buildings, street vistas, open space and diverse architectural characters providing important reference points for a legible and safe town centre

  • places for relaxation, recreation and venues for community events

  • new shops in a local ‘high street’

  • equitable access for walking, cycling and public transport

  • adaptable buildings that can accommodate future land use changes

  • a central civic place with diverse public uses, high public amenity and a distinct design.

The City of Sydney has a critical role in implementing a range of projects, programs and services to deliver the vision for the Green Square town centre. This cannot be done alone, but by working with partners across the community, the private sector, business and government. The partnerships that apply to the wider Green Square renewal area also apply to the town centre, including:

  • planning agreements that include contracts for civil works delivered by private developers and building design requirements for connection to the City’s recycled water network

  • consultative and advisory committees and networks including state government and technical experts to provide specialist advice, guide the renewal and in some cases jointly deliver infrastructure such as schools, major trunk drain and road works and health facilities

  • a partnership with the state government’s development arm to foster renewal and placemaking

  • informal partnerships with stakeholders, business and the community to consult and liaise on implementation, place initiatives, manage development and construction impacts and build capacity and understanding in the community about city issues.

The significant renewal in the Green Square town centre requires the City to make a major allocation of resources to support, deliver and maintain key infrastructure and community services as development progresses. This is a major undertaking for the City. The town centre’s combined private and government investment value is $A8 billion. In addition to private investment the City is investing $A540 million in land purchases, new streets, drainage, community facilities and parks. Cash contributions from developers assist indirectly funding the City’s capital works program for essential local infrastructure (roads, drainage, open space and traffic/access infrastructure) and facilities (childcare centres, libraries and recreational facilities).

 

INNOVATIVE ASPECTS

The Green Square town centre initiative is revolutionary in its conception, planning and implementation. Some key aspects include:

•  a radical value capture model designed to ensure contributions to deliver civil and public domain infrastructure are made in time to support development – the very final stage of the rezoning process is held back until the developer commits in an agreement with the City to develop and fund the infrastructure 

  • a heavily constrained site at the confluence of major regional roads requiring vast and costly flood management responses for which a unique state/local government partnership was set up – historically the site was the location of a dam in low lying swampland

  • unprecedented local government commitment to forward fund works to deliver social, civic and public domain infrastructure for its community and boost private development –weaving in restoration and adaptive reuse of heritage buildings with a radical underground library defiant of hydrological constraints 

  • world-class sustainable infrastructure and spaces – Australia’s largest residential stormwater harvesting and treatment scheme, community buildings powered by low carbon and renewable energy through a ‘private wire’ scheme 

  • unprecedented coordination of development and delivery of public domain and civil infrastructure across multiple landownerships.

Strategic plans, planning controls, policies, design excellence processes, design codes and technical specifications guide the renewal of the town centre towards a green, global and connected city. As in the wider Green Square area, the renewal is informed and inspired by local and international best practice. However, the town centre as a cluster of capital projects and programs interconnected by a green grid of tree lined streets, services and utilities is uniquely innovative.

In addition to innovation being applied in delivering the entire Green Square renewal area, innovation in the town centre is driven by design excellence and commitment to sustainability and is being applied in particular in:

  • adaptation and re-use of buildings for community and creative uses in a former hospital site• radical competition-winning design for a new library and plaza that redefines the traditional idea of a library – by fusing the building and plaza to create multiple activity layers for play, work, to connect, learn and relax

  • adaptation of the former hospital administration building, for a Green Infrastructure Centre, to house a water recycling facility that supplies treated stormwater in all town centre buildings for flushing toilets, laundries, irrigation and cooling towers. The water is stored in two tanks under a new park

  • a new Gunyama Park Aquatic and Recreation Centre which is inspired by Sydney’s famous ocean swimming spots. Heated and powered by its own locally produced energy system, the facility will offer indoor pools, a gym, a covered outdoor yoga deck and a crèche. In the park there will be outdoor space to relax and play in, including a skate bowl, barbecues, a fitness training circuit and a multipurpose sports field

  • the City’s co-generation plant will supply low carbon energy to the network and a battery will power the precinct’s street lighting. Solar panels produce electricity for the City’s local electricity network.

Background to obstacles faced in the Green Square renewal is included in the main application. Specifically in the town centre, multiple ownerships split between state and local government and private landowners and complex land ownership patterns constrained coordinated development. Heavy contamination and significant flooding precluded development on many key sites. There was a lack of overall coordination and development was unfeasible as funding for critical infrastructure was unresolved. There was no funding stream from state government. In 2006 the City took the lead for the urban renewal, and developed a financial framework for delivering infrastructure to enable and support redevelopment. The City took control of coordinating the planning and now delivery of infrastructure for the area. Critical milestones were reached in 2009 when the state government’s development arm, established a consortium to redevelop core sites in the town centre, and in 2014 when an agreement was secured for the 2.5 kilometre trunk stormwater drain to address flooding, a key impediment to redevelopment.

 

DESIRED CHANGE OR OUTCOME 

Over the last three years, the town centre has undergone great transformation, significantly achieving realisation of the vision for a green and connected community. Some achievements include:

  • new tree-lined streets offer improved connectivity and permeability, greater canopy cover, stormwater capture and local biodiversity

  • 600 apartments are now occupied offering accommodation for about 1,200 residents and a further 700 apartments are under construction

  • the City has delivered some major projects, significantly achieving realisation of its vision – the library and civic plaza, a new park and adaptive reuse of the former hospital site buildings for community spaces

  • the trunk drain project is almost complete

  • the recycled water network was turned on in mid-2018 supplying non-potable water to residents and the City’s facilities

  • solar PVs in the City’s buildings supply the private wire network

  • extremely popular place-making activities (such as jewelry making, musical workshops, knitting and wood carving) are being run    in the new community facilities, some in partnership with developers.

The same metrics used by the City to assess and document change in the Green Square renewal are used in the town centre:

  • financial reporting to track expenditure and performance

  • development approvals and construction data to measure rates of change and update population projections

  • environmental sustainability progress reports

  • research and review initiatives include:

  • Gehl Architects’ benchmark studies to map, assess and guide the usability and quality of the City’s public spaces and architecture

  • monitoring and measuring social cohesion through community surveys by the NSW University

  • partnerships with health and transport government agencies to assess evolving conditions (such as public transport use, walking and cycling numbers)- 

  • a 5-yearly floor space and employment survey measures changes in job numbers and types of employment

  • capacity studies measure take up of floorspace permitted under the planning framework and available floorspace

  • monitoring media, social media and public feedback on the City’s activities and issues of concern and progress reports.

Similar to the wider planning policy and implementation framework in the wider Green Square, the town centre ‘tool-kit’ devised to ensure success of the initiative includes:

  • a comprehensive package of detailed planning controls inextricably linked to an infrastructure strategy detailing a cost schedule and contributions to be made by developers dependent on level of value uplift

  • legally binding deeds and planning agreements to seal developer and government commitments to contribute to infrastructure delivery

  • detailed infrastructure design plans ready for construction

  • transparent, open and consistent communication and engagement with all stakeholders to

  • build trust and confidence in the realisation of the vision

  • conditions of development approval requiring developers to set up ‘construction liaison committees’ with community representatives so as to manage and mitigate construction impacts

  • an engagement program to support the community during renewal, hear and respond to local needs.

The City of Sydney is a leader in making beautiful and sustainable places for people to live, work and visit. The City has a responsibility to strive for better outcomes with each successive development – constantly improving government and the private sector’s understanding of best practice. For the first time in over 100 years, the City is designing anew town centre, revitalising the heritage and charm of this inner-city area using innovative design to create a great place to live, work and visit. The town centre initiative, as for the wider renewal area, is setting new benchmarks in renewal at a large scale. It contributes to the City of Sydney’s reputation as a bold and visionary leader, who can demonstrate by doing how denser cities can be the healthiest, greenest, most stimulating places for people – with the least environmental footprint.

 

LEARNING ASPECTS 

The town centre is the most complex project the City has ever managed. The learnings from the City’s experience in urban renewal would offer other cities insights on an approach that can be applied to regeneration of large scale and high density areas. Similar learning would apply to the town centre initiative, as detailed in the Green Square main initiative. Similarly, the City conducts many tours, receives delegations and makes presentations at many forums, and shares information on various aspects of the renewal project.

 

RELEVANCE TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS 

  • Goal 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all ages

  • Goal 4: Ensure inclusive and equitable education and promote life-long learning opportunities for all

  • Goal 6: Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all

  • Goal 9: Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation

  • Goal 11: Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable

  • Target 1: Access for all to adequate, safe and affordable housing and basic services and upgrade slums

  • Target 2: Access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all

  • Target 3: Participatory, integrated and sustainable human settlement planning and management

  • Target 4: Safeguard cultural and natural heritage

  • Target 6: Improve air quality and manage municipal and other wastes

  • Target 7: Universal access to safe, inclusive and accessible green and public spaces, in particular of women, children older persons and persons with disabilities

  • Target 9: Improving resource efficiency, mitigation and adaptation to climate change, resilience to disasters and implement holistic disaster risk management

  • Goal 13: Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts

  • Goal 16: Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions for all