【IN FOCUS】International Day for Biological Diversity: Build Back Biodiversity
May 22, 2023 marks the 23rd International Day for Biological Diversity. The proposal for this year’s theme is “From Agreement to Action: Build Back Biodiversity" which builds on the results of COP 15 -- Now that the world has the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (agreement), the focus must quickly shift to its implementation (action).
Biodiversity is an important component in maintaining ecological balance and promoting harmonious development between humans and nature. However, the expansion of cities has damaged the natural environment and resulted in problems such as resource scarcity, climate change, and environmental pollution, which pose a threat to global biodiversity. Therefore, it is essential to incorporate global goals for protecting biodiversity into urban planning to achieve sustainable development in cities. IN FOCUS today will introduce five innovative initiatives that incorporate the protection and restoration of biodiversity into urban planning and development.
"Water Banking Movement", Transforming Glintung Go Green from Flood Risk Area
"Water Banking Movement" by the "Glintung Go Green" is a public practice initiative led by local community leaders and supported by the government, universities, and other professionals. The goal is to transform the local environment, which is affected by floods almost every year, into a more livable, environmentally friendly, and flood-resistant community.
The initiative involves planting trees and constructing catchment areas next to residential areas in the community, building vertical aerial gardens, launching green tourism projects, distributing soil for organic food cultivation, and integrating cultural heritage into environmental projects, with residents as the main participants and different stakeholders as support. Each residential building and road in the community is connected to the drainage system, which is also redesigned to enhance the water collection capacity of houses and roads. Combined with the enhancement of greenery, the initiative has successfully helped the community resist flood damage. The large-scale greening has also reduced the local temperature by 2 ℃, improving the comfort level of the area. Additionally, the underground water reserve has risen by 2 meters, reducing the depth required for digging wells.
4°C Cooler – Using Green Infrastructure to Build a Climate-Resilient and Prosperous Melbourne
In 2010, in response to climate change, Melbourne proposed the idea of creating a "Forest in the City", aiming to reduce summer temperatures by 4 ℃ using green infrastructure. To achieve this goal, the Melbourne City Council appointed a new urban greening and landscape team, which developed the "Urban Forest Strategy" and "Open Space Strategy" to double the city's vegetation cover and increase its permeability. To enhance the city's climate resilience, the local government strengthened the construction of green infrastructure (GI), including protecting urban forests, increasing green spaces such as parks and greenways, using green roofs and green walls, building rainwater collectors and permeable roads, and increasing waterways and wetlands. The project was funded with 40 million US dollars at that time, greatly promoting the development of green cities and inspiring many cities in Australia, including Brisbane, Darwin, and Perth.
Chiang Rai, Thailand
Urban Ecosystem and Biodiversity Conservation Towards Sustainable City and Climate Change Resilience
With the development of commerce and tourism, the expansion of the city of Chiang Rai has led to the continuous reduction of natural resources such as forests, water bodies, and animal habitats. In order to address these issues, the Chiang Rai city government has implemented the "Improving Urban Ecological Environment and Enhancing Biodiversity" project since 2008.
The project has been committed to restoring and protecting the city's ecological system diversity, aiming to achieve the ecological balance of its urban, economic, and social development. To achieve this goal, the local government has made changes in several aspects, such as policy, strategy, budget, and public participation. Specifically, their actions include building a low-carbon city, protecting the city's ecological system, increasing biodiversity to enhance the ability to cope with climate change, and preparing emergency plans to respond to natural disasters. Also, the project has been included in Chiang Rai's three-year development plan and allocated funds accordingly.
The implementation of this project has led to an increasing involvement of citizens and educational institutions, which demonstrates that the project has not only protected natural resources and biodiversity but has also increased people's enthusiasm for participation.
Environmental Recovery Program of the Canabrava Park
Salvador was once covered by a tropical rainforest called the "Atlantic Forest," which was considered one of the five most important biodiversity hotspots on Earth with important global carbon sequestration functions. However, the urbanization and unsustainable economic development of Salvador led to excessive deforestation, causing a decrease in green areas, river redirection, intensified urban heat island effects, and left many wildlife species homeless. Under these circumstances, the "Atlantic Forest Capital City" project was launched.
The project aimed to increase urban green areas by distributing local tree seedlings and planting them in schools, parks, and squares, and creating ecological corridors. In addition, the project secretariat conducted environmental education activities, such as promoting environmental and sustainable development education for children and citizens to develop more sustainable living habits. Furthermore, the secretariat took various measures to encourage citizens to plant trees, protect the environment, and strengthen environmental awareness. After five and a half years of implementation, Salvador’s urban green area had significantly increased, and the number of environmentally related start-ups had risen, making it a leading city in environmental protection and climate change mitigation efforts.
Curridabat, Costa Rica: Sweet City
The city of Curridabat is located in the central valley of Costa Rica, surrounded by several important biological corridors. As the city continues to develop and the population grows, the conflict between urbanization and nature intensifies, and the contact between citizens and nature and other living creatures becomes increasingly rare.
In order to create a biologically diverse, comfortable, clean, peaceful and more orderly urban environment, the city has taken various measures, such as reintroducing multiple plant species that were once replaced by a single species, promoting the importance of harmonious interaction with nature, enhancing the community's micro-land management capacity, integrating urban planning and design into the community's culture, and adjusting infrastructure to adapt to biodiversity. Among them, the "Sweet City" practice project installs or consolidates natural conservation as an urban activity, specifically through the increase in the number and variety of pollinators and providing a favorable environment for them.
This initiative has not only brought beauty to the people of Curridabat, but also created better "performing conditions" for pollination and thus a more bio-diverse, comfortable, clean, peaceful, and colorful urban environment.